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'Fighting for Freedom' -- America's Abiding Myth


November 8, 2012
Gar Smith / The-Edge & Environmentalists Against War

A review of US military history reveals that, over a period of 230 years, there were only 31 years in which US troops were not actively engaged in armed invasions of foreign shores. As of 2006, there were 192 member states in the United Nations. Incredibly enough, over the past two centuries, the United State has attacked, invaded, policed, overthrown or occupied 62 of them

Special to Environmentalists Against War

When Democratic opponents step forth to assess Washington's invasion and chaotic, blood-drenched occupation of Iraq, they routinely leaven their criticisms with somber nods to our "brave men and women who are defending our freedom overseas. "

Reports from the field generally confirm that few of the men and women who are actually caught up in the hell of America's wars in Iraq and Afghanistan ever presume to call themselves "brave." Such rhetoric is reserved for the tongues of politicians -- most of whom have never felt the heat of battle or the chill of fear.

Observers in countries outside the US must wonder how, in a free and democratic republic, US politicians can continue to portray the Pentagon's endless foreign invasions as an exercise in "defending America's freedoms. "

At best, we have sent troops to Somalia, Serbia and Haiti to defend the freedom of others. In these instances, our soldiers were sent -- frequently under United Nations auspices -- to serve as "peacekeepers" or to prevent "ethnic cleansing. " But the fact remains: it's been a long time since one could make the case that US troops were sent into harm's way abroad to defend our freedoms at home.

In the case of Iraq, the Bush administration falsely claimed that Baghdad posed a threat to the residents of Billings and Biloxi. When the pretext of seizing Saddam's fearsome arsenal of WMDs evaporated quicker than you could say "mushroom cloud," the White House simply ground its gears and shifted its rationale. The mission morphed into a crusade to remove an evil dictator -- as a prelude to "freeing" the Iraqis and "installing democracy. "

While this was a laudable narrative (even if it has not been born out in practice) it is far from constituting anything close to "defending freedom at home. "

If the Pentagon's purpose were to overthrow dictators and install bicameral Free-Market-friendly, representative republics, there are scores of regimes that are better candidates for removal. Iraq's cosmopolitan Baathists, after all, promoted a sectarian society, offered equality to women, provided for the health and education of its people and even had a fully functioning stock market.

From the Halls of Montezuma
To the Shores of Tripoli

The New York-headquartered Global Policy Forum recently took a clear-eyed look at the history of US soldiering in a comprehensive study of "US Interventions -- 1798 to the Present. " A similar survey charting "A Century of US Military Interventions: From Wounded Knee to Afghanistan" was compiled by Zoltan Grossman and published on Znet in 2001.

And in 1993, Ellen C. Collier, a Foreign Policy Specialist with the Congressional Research Service's Foreign Affairs and National Defense Division assembled a list of "Instances of Use of United States Forces Abroad, 1798 - 1993. " The report can be found on the homepage of the US Navy's Naval Historical Center. (www. history. navy. mil/wars/foabroad. htm)

Both the Forum and Collier surveys begin in 1798 with Marines landing in the Dominican Republic as part of an undeclared naval war against France. Collier's study ends in 1993, with President Clinton's deployment of 350 soldiers in Macedonia. The Forum study concludes with Marines landing in Haiti in 2004 to supervise the overthrow of the country's elected president, Jean-Bertrand Aristide.

Collier's report lists "234 instances in which the United States has used its armed forces abroad in situations of conflict or potential conflict or for other than normal peacetime purposes. "

Collier added the caveat that her list "does not include covert actions or numerous instances in which US forces have been stationed abroad since World War II in occupation forces or for participation in mutual security organizations, base agreements, or routine military assistance or training operations."

The Forum's more conservative list documents 188 instances in which US troops have been sent to wave "the big stick" over foreign turf -- a record of imperial meddling unmatched in the long, bloody history of nations.

A review of these studies reveals that, in our country's 230 years of existence, there have been only 31 years in which US troops were not actively engaged in significant armed adventures on foreign shores.

The arithmetic is daunting. Over the long course of US history, fewer than 14% of America's days have been marked by peace. The defining characteristic of our nation's foreign policy for 86% of our existence would appear to be a bellicose penchant for military intervention.

As of 2006, there were 192 member states in the United Nations. Incredibly enough, over the past two centuries, the United State has attacked, invaded, policed, overthrown or occupied 62 of them.

With the exception of WW II (when US forces were otherwise engaged), the longest span the US has spent without imposing its brigades beyond its borders was a blissful five-year interregnum between the US Army's 1976 occupation of Matamoros, Mexico and the 1882 landing of US troops in British Egypt.

Many Wars on Many Fronts
Many of America's war-fighting years have been marked by simultaneous interventions.

* In 1843, Marines invaded both Canton, China and the Ivory Coast. In 1856, Marines were deployed in Colombia and China while the Navy was busy seizing islands in Hawaii.

* In 1858, Marines invaded both Uruguay and Fiji.

* In 1867, Marines landed in Nicaragua and Formosa while the US Navy was capturing Midway Island for use as a military base.

* In 1888, US troops swarmed ashore in Haiti and Samoa.

* In 1896, US Marines were patrolling both Nicaragua and Korea. 1898 saw US troops brandishing their arms in Cuba, Guam, Nicaragua, Puerto Rico and the Philippines.

* In 1911, US troops were on duty in both Honduras and China. The second decade of the 20th century saw US soldiers stationed in Haiti, Mexico, Cuba, Panama, Yugoslavia, and Honduras.

* 1918 marked the beginning of America's little-known invasion of Russia, which pitted the US Army and Navy against the Bolshevik Army in a five-year campaign.

* In 1922, Marines were operating inside Turkey while the Navy was beginning a five-year deployment in China. In 1946, the US had troops deployed in northern Iran while 100,000 US Army soldiers were fighting inside China.

* In 1948, the US was waging a counterinsurgency war in Greece while the CIA was waging a secret "commando" war in the Philippines and trying to rig national elections in Italy.

* In 1953, the midst of the Korean War, the CIA was tasked to overthrow the democratically elected government of Iran -- installing, not democracy, but the despotic Shah of Iran.

* In 1958, US troops clashed with local residents in Panama while another 14,000 marines and army soldiers were setting up shop in Lebanon.

* In 1965, the US began an eight-year bombing campaign against Laos, overthrew the government of the Congo and sent 23,000 troops to pacify the Dominican Republic.

* In 1973, the US invaded Laos and toppled the democratically elected government in Chile -- installing the brutal dictatorship of Gen. Augusto Pinochet.

* In 1981, US forces directed attacks against Libya, El Salvador and Nicaragua.

* In 1986, the US bombed Libya and started a covert war in Bolivia.

* In 1990, the US sent 27,000 troops to Panama and deployed troops inside Liberia.

* In 1993, the US had troops fighting in Somalia, Yugoslavia and Bosnia.

* In 1998, US troops were on duty in Sudan, Afghanistan, and Iraq.

And, today, US forces are actively engaged in fighting in Afghanistan and Iraq while 350,000 are garrisoned in more than 700 US bases situated in 130 countries around the world (not counting the 6,000 military bases located inside the US).

Washington's Imperial Reach
Here is a list of the foreign lands America has attacked -- some have been targeted more than once:

* French Territory (1798).

* Libya (1801-05; 1981; 1986; 1989).

* Spanish Mexico (1806).

* Britain (in the War of 1812).

* Marquesas Island (1813).

* French, British and Spanish Caribbean (1814-1825).

* Algiers and Tripoli (1815).

* Spanish Cuba (1822-1825).

* Greece (1827; 1947-49).

* Falkland/Malvinas Islands (1831).

* Sumatra (1832; 1838).

* Argentina (1833; 1890).

* Peru (1835-1836).

* Mexico (1836; 1846-48; 1859; 1876; 1913' 1914; 1915-16).

* Canada (1837).

* Fiji (1840-41; 1858).

* Samoa (1841; 1885; 1888; 1889; 1899).

* China (1843; 1859; 1866; 1894-1895; 1900; 1911-1941; 1927-1927; 1927-1934; 1934; 1940-34; 1934; 1946-49).

* Ivory Coast (1843).

* Ottoman Empire/Turkey (1849).

* Nicaragua (1854; 1867; 1894; 1896; 1898; 1899; 1907; 1910; 1912-1933).

* Japan (1854; 1863; 1864; 1868; 1981-1990).

* Uruguay (1855; 1868).

* Columbia (1856; 1860; 1865; 1866; 1870; 1873; 1885; 1895; 1901; 1902; 1903).

* Hawaii (1856; 1874; 1887; 1893).

* Paraguay (1859).

* Portuguese West Africa (1860).

* Formosa Island/Taiwan (1867).

* Midway Island (1867).

* Korea (1871; 1894-1896; 1904-05; 1950-53).

* British Egypt (1882).

* Haiti (1888; 1891; 1914-1934; 1959; 1991; 1994-96; 2004).

* Chile (1891; 1973).

* Guam (1898; 1903).

* Cuba (1898; 1906-09; 1912; 1917-1933; 1933; 1961; 1962).

* Puerto Rico (1898).

* Philippines (1898; 1899; 1948-54; 1989).

* Panama (1901; 1902; 1903; 1908; 1912; 1918-1920; 1925; 1958; 1964; 1989-1990)

* Honduras (1903; 1907; 1911; 1912; 1919; 1924-25; 1983-89).

* Dominican Republic (1903; 1914; 1916-1924; 1965).

* Russia (1918-1922).

* Yugoslavia (1919).

* Guatemala (1920; 1954; 1966-67).

* Turkey (1922).

v El Salvador (1932; 1981-1992).

v Iran (1946; 1953; 1980; 1984; 1987-1988).

v Italy (1948).

* Vietnam (1954; 1960-64; 1965-1975).

* Lebanon (1958; 1982-1984).

* Congo (1960; 1965).

* Laos (1962; 1965-73; 1971-73).

* Ecuador (1963).

* Brazil (1964).

* Indonesia (1965).

* Ghana (1966).

* Cambodia (1969-75; 1975).

* Oman (1970).

* Angola (1976-92).

* Grenada (1983).

* Bolivia (1986).

* Liberia (1990; 1997).

* Iraq (1990-91; 1991-2003; 1998; 2003-6).

* Somalia (1992-1994)

* Yugoslavia (1992-94; 1999)

* Bosnia (1993-95).

* Croatia (1995).

* Zaire (1996-97).

* Sudan (1998).

* Afghanistan (1998; 2001-06).

* Macedonia (2001).

And How Many of These Nations
Are Now Thriving 'Democracies'?

This lamentable list should put to eternal rest the argument that US troops are put at risk to "defend our freedoms at home. "

This leaves the myth of "spreading democracy. "

If it were true that Washington employs the Pentagon's awesome power to promote democracy abroad, then it would stand to reason that every country the US has invaded has consequently come to know the joys of freedom and democracy.

Once again, the pages of history document a legacy of bloodletting that, almost without exception, has left most target nations in the grips of a shattered economy and in the hands of friendly dictatorships and compliant oligarchies.

The rare exceptions include Japan, which emerged from US military occupation with an imposed Constitution that enshrined democratic procedures and mandated a demilitarized society.

If there were any truth to the myth that the US uses its military might to promote democracy around the world, the most democratic countries on Earth would be the countries the US has spent the most time invading.

By this reasoning, the most democratic nations on Earth would be

* Honduras (7 interventions),

* Haiti (7),

* Cuba (7),

* Mexico (7),

* Nicaragua (9),

* Panama (10),

* Colombia (11),

* China (12).

Any rational mind confronting the historical record must be compelled to abandon forever the conceit that the US makes a practice of spending its treasure and expending the lives of its young in the pursuit of freedom -- either at home or abroad.

The record is clear. The rest is a myth.

For an annotated list of US interventions, see:
www. globalpolicy. org/empire/history/interventions. htm

1. SOUTH DAKOTA / 1890 (-?) / Troops / 300 Lakota Indians massacred at Wounded Knee.
2. ARGENTINA / 1890 / Troops / Buenos Aires interests protected.
3. CHILE / 1891 / Troops / Marines clash with nationalist rebels.
4. HAITI / 1891 / Troops / Black workers revolt on U. S. -claimed Navassa Island defeated.
5. IDAHO / 1892 / troops / Army suppresses silver miners' strike.
6. HAWAII / 1893 (-?) / Naval, troops / Independent kingdom overthrown, annexed.
7. CHICAGO / 1894 / Troops / Breaking of rail strike, 34 killed.
8. NICARAGUA / 1894 / Troops / Month-long occupation of Bluefields.
9. CHINA / 1894-95 / Naval, troops / Marines land in Sino-Japanese War.
10. KOREA / 1894-96 / Troops / Marines kept in Seoul during war.
11. PANAMA / 1895 / Troops, naval / Marines land in Colombian province.
12. NICARAGUA / 1896 / Troops / Marines land in port of Corinto.
13. CHINA / 1989-1900 / Troops / Boxer Rebellion fought by foreign armies.
14. PHILIPPINES / 1898-1910(-?) / Naval, troops / Seized from Spain, killed 600,000 Filipinos.
15. CUBA / 1898-1902(-?) / Naval, troops / Seized from Spain, still hold Navy base.
16. PUERTO RICO / 1898(-?) / Naval, troops / Seized from Spain, occupation continues.
17. GUAM / 1898(-?) / Naval, troops / Seized from Spain, still use as base.
18. MINNESOTA / 1898(-?) / Troops / Army battles Chippewa at Leech Lake.
19. NICARAGUA / 1898 / Troops / Marines land at port of San Juan del Sur.
20. SAMOA / 1899(-?) / Troops / Battle over succession to throne.
21. NICARAGUA / 1899 / Troops / Marines land at port of Bluefields.
22. IDAHO / 1899-1901 / Troops / Army occupies C?ur d'Alene mining region.
23. OKLAHOMA / 1901 / Troops / Army battles Creek Indian revolt.
24. PANAMA / 1901-14 / Naval, troops / Broke off from Colombia 1903, annexed Canal Zone 1914-99.
25. HONDURAS / 1903 / Troops / Marines intervene in revolution.
26. DOMINICAN REP. / 1903-04 / Troops / U. S. interests protected in Revolution.
27. KOREA / 1904-05 / Troops / Marines land in Russo-Japanese War.
28. CUBA / 1906-09 / Troops / Marines land in democratic election.
29. NICARAGUA / 1907 / Troops / 'Dollar Diplomacy' protectorate set up.
30. HONDURAS / 1907 / Troops / Marines land during war with Nicaragua.
31. PANAMA / 1908 / Troops / Marines intervene in election contest.
32. NICARAGUA / 1910 / Troops / Marines land in Bluefields and Corinto.
33. HONDURAS / 1911 / Troops / U. S. interests protected in civil war.
34. CUBA / 1912 / Troops / U. S. interests protected in Havana.
35. PANAMA / 19l2 / Troops / Marines land during heated election.
36. HONDURAS / 19l2 / Troops / Marines protect U. S. economic interests.
37. NICARAGUA / 1912-33 / Troops, bombing / 20-year occupation, fought guerrillas.
38. MEXICO / 1913 / Naval / Americans evacuated during revolution.
39. DOMINICAN REPUBLIC / 1914 / Naval / Fight with rebels over Santo Domingo.
40. COLORADO / 1914 / Troops / Breaking of miners' strike by Army.
41. MEXICO / 1914-18 / Naval, troops / Series of interventions against nationalists.
42. HAITI / 1914-34 / Troops, bombing / 19-year occupation after revolts.
43. DOMINICAN REPUBLIC / 1916-24 / Troops / 8-year Marine occupation.
44. CUBA / 1917-33 / Troops / Military occupation, economic protectorate.
45. WORLD WAR I / 1917-18 / Naval, troops / Ships sunk, fought Germany.
46. RUSSIA / 1918-22 / Naval, troops / Five landings to fight Bolsheviks.
47. PANAMA / 1918-20 / Troops / 'Police duty' during unrest after elections.
48. YUGOSLAVIA / 1919 / Troops / Marines intervene for Italy against Serbs in Dalmatia.
49. HONDURAS / 1919 / Troops / Marines land during election campaign.
50. GUATEMALA / 1920 / Troops / 2-week intervention against unionists.
51. WEST VIRGINIA / 1920-21 / Troops, bombing / Army intervenes against mineworkers.
52. TURKEY / 1922 / Troops / Fought nationalists in Smyrna (Izmir).
53. CHINA / 1922-27 / Naval, troops / Deployment during nationalist revolt.
54. HONDURAS / 1924-25 / Troops / Landed twice during election strife.
55. PANAMA / 1925 / Troops / Marines suppress general strike.
56. CHINA / 1927-34 / Troops / Marines stationed throughout the country.
57. EL SALVADOR / 1932 / Naval / Warships sent during Faribundo Marti revolt.
58. WASHINGTON DC / 1932 / Troops / Army stops WWI vet bonus protest.
59. WORLD WAR II / 1941-45 / Naval,troops, bombing, nuclear / Fought Axis for 3 years; 1st nuclear war.
60. DETROIT / 1943 / Troops / Army puts down Black rebellion.
61. IRAN / 1946 / Nuclear threat / Soviet troops told to leave north (Iranian Azerbaijan).
62. YUGOSLAVIA / 1946 / Naval / Response to shooting-down of U. S. plane.
63. URUGUAY / 1947 / Nuclear threat / Bombers deployed as show of strength.
64. GREECE / 1947-49 / Command operation / U. S. directs extreme-right in civil war.
65. CHINA / 1948-49 / Troops / Marines evacuate Americans before Communist victory.
66. GERMANY / 1948 / Nuclear threat / Atomic-capable bombers guard Berlin Airlift.
67. PHILIPPINES / 1948-54 / Command operation / CIA directs war against Huk Rebellion.
68. PUERTO RICO / 1950 / Troops, naval, bombing, nuclear threats / Independence rebellion crushed in Ponce.
69. KOREA / 1951-53(-?) / U. S. & South Korea fight China & North Korea to stalemate; A bomb threat in 1950, & vs. China in 1953. Still have bases.
70. IRAN / 1953 / Command operation / CIA overthrows democracy, installs Shah.
71. VIETNAM / 1954 / Nuclear threat / Bombs offered to French to use against siege.
72. GUATEMALA / 1954 / Command operation, bombing, nuclear threat / CIA directs exile invasion after new gov't nationalizes U. S. company lands; bombers based in Nicaragua.
73. EGYPT / 1956 / Nuclear threat, troops / Soviets told to keep out of Suez crisis; Marines evacuate foreigners
74. LEBANON / 1958 / Troops, naval / Marine occupation “Blue Bat” against rebels
75. IRAQ / 1958 / Nuclear threat / Iraq warned against invading Kuwait.
76. CHINA / 1958 / Nuclear threat / China told not to move on Taiwan isles.
77. PANAMA / 1958 / Troops / Flag protests erupt into confrontation
78. TAIWAN-Straße / 1958 – 1963 / 23. 08. 1958 bis 1. 06. 1963
79. KONGO / 1960 – 1962 / 14. 07. 1960 bis 1. 09. 1962
80. VIETNAM / 1960-75 / Troops, naval, bombing, nuclear threats / Fought South Vietnam revolt & North Vietnam; 1-2 million killed in longest U. S. war; atomic bomb threats in 1968 and 1969.
81. CUBA / 1961 / Command operation / CIA-directed exile invasion fails.
82. GERMANY / 1961 / Nuclear threat / Alert during Berlin Wall crisis.
83. CUBA / 1962 / Nuclear threat / Naval Blockade during missile crisis; near-war with USSR.
84. LAOS / 1962 / Command operation / Military buildup during guerrilla war.
85. PANAMA / 1964 / Troops / Panamanians shot for urging canal's return.
86. INDONESIA / 1965 / Command operation / Million killed in CIAassisted army coup.
87. DOMINICAN REPUBLIC / 1965-66 / Operation “Powerpack” / Troops, bombing / Marines land during election campaign. / 28. 04. 1965 bis 21. 09. 1966
88. GUATEMALA / 1966-67 / Command operation / Green Berets intervene against rebels.
89. DETROIT / 1967 / Troops / Army battles Blacks, 43 killed.
90. ISRAEL / 1967 / Sechs-Tage-Krieg: Mittlerer Osten, 13. 05. 1967 bis 10. 06. 1967
91. UNITED STATES / 1968 / Troops / After King is shot; over 21,000 soldiers in cities.
92. CAMBODIA / 1969-75 / Bombing, troops, naval / Up to 2 million killed in decade of bombing, starvation, and political chaos.
93. SÜDVIETNAM / 1965 – 1970 / 24. 02. 1965 bis Oktober 1968 / Operation “Rolling Thunder”
94. SÜDOSTASIEN / 1965 – 1970 / 18. 06. 1965 bis April 1970 / Operation “Arc Light”
95. OMAN / 1970 / Command operation / U. S. directs Iranian marine invasion
96. NORTHVIETNAM / 1970 21. 11. 1970 / Operation “Ivory Coast/Kingoin”
97. LAOS / 1971-73 / Operation “Tailwind” / Command operation, bombing U. S. directs South Vietnamese invasion; 'carpet-bombs' countryside
98. NORTHVIETNAM / 1962 – 1971 / Operation “Linebacker I”: Nordvietnam, 10. 05. 1972 bis 23. Oktober
99. NORTHVIETNAM / 1962 – 1971 / Operation “Ranch Hand”: Südvietnam, Januar 1962 bis Januar 1971
100. NORTHVIETNAM / 1972 / Operation “Linebacker II”: Nordvietnam, 18. 12. 1972 bis 29. 12. 1972
101. NORTHVIETNAM / 1972 / Operation “Pocket Money”: Nordvietnam, 9. 05. 1972 bis 23. 10. 1972
102. NORTHVIETNAM / 1972 / Operation “Freedom Train”: Nordvietnam, 6. 04. 1972 bis 10. 05. 1972
103. NORTHVIETNAM / 1972 / Operation “Endweep”: Nordvietnam, 27. 01. 1972 bis 27. 07. 1973
104. SOUTH DAKOTA / 1973 / Command operation / Army directs Wounded Knee siege of Lakotas.
105. MIDEAST / 1973 / Nuclear threat / World-wide alert during Mideast War / Operation “Nickel Grass”: Mittlerer Osten, 6. 10. 1973 bis 17. 11. 1973.
106. CHILE / 1973 / Command operation / CIA-backed coup ousts elected marxist president.
107. CAMBODIA / 1975 / Troops, bombing Gas captured ship, 28 die in copter crash. / Operation “Eagle Pull”: Kambodscha, 11. 04. 1975 bis 13. 04. 1975 / Operation “Freequent Wind”: Evakuierung in Südvietnam, 26. 04. 1975 bis 30. 04. 1975 / Operation “Mayaguez”: Kambodscha, 15. 05. 1975
108. ZENTRAL- UND SÜDAMERIKA 1977 – 1999 / Operation “Coronet Oak” / Oktober 1977 bis 17. 02. 1999
109. ANGOLA / 1976-92 / Command operation / CIA assists South African-backed rebels.
110. IRAN / 1980 / Troops, nuclear threat, aborted bombing / 8 troops die in plane crash. Soviets warned not to get involved in revolution. / Operationen “Eagle Claw/Desert One”: Iran, 25. 04. 1980
111. LIBYA / 1981 / Naval jets / Two Libyan jets shot down in maneuvers / Operation “Golf von Sidra”: Libyen, 18. 08. 1981
112. EL SALVADOR / 1981-92 / Command operation, troops, advisors / Overflights aid anti-rebel war, soldiers briefly involved in hostage clash / El Salvador, Nikaragua: 1. 01. 1981 bis 1. 02. 1992
113. NICARAGUA / 1981-90 / Command operation, naval / CIA directs exile (Contra) invasions, plants harbor mines against revolution.
114. LEBANON / 1982-84 / Naval, bombing, troops / Marines expel PLO and back Phalangists, Navy bombs and shells Muslim and Syrian positions.
115. HONDURAS / 1983-89 / Troops / Maneuvers help build bases near borders.
116. GRENADA / 1983-84 / Troops, bombing / Invasion four years after revolution / Operation “Urgent Fury”: 23. 10. 1983 bis 21. 11. 1983
117. IRAN / 1984 / Jets / Two Iranian jets shot down over Persian Gulf.
118. LIBYA / 1986 / Bombing, naval / Air strikes to topple nationalist gov't. / US-Multinational Force / 25. 08. 1982 bis 11. 12. 1987
119. LIBYA / 1986 / Operation “Attain Document”: Libyen, 26. 01. 1986 bis 29. 03. 1986
120. LIBYA / 1986 / Operation “El Dorado Canyon”: Libyen, 12. 04. 1986 bis 17. 04. 1986
121. LIBYA / 1986 / Operation “Blast Furnace”: Bolivien, Juli 1986 bis November 1986
122. BOLIVIA / 1986 / Troops / Army assists raids on cocaine region.
123. IRAN / 1987-88 / Naval, bombing / US intervenes on side of Iraq in war
124. HONDURAS 1988 / Operation “Golden Pheasant
125. PERSISCHER GOLF / 1988 / Operation “Praying Mantis” / 17. 04. 1988 bis 19. 04. 1988
126. LIBYA / 1989 / Naval jets / Two Libyan jets shot down.
127. Persischer Golf / 1987 – 1990 / Operation “Ernest Will” / 24. 07. 1987 bis 2. 08. 1990
128. VIRGIN ISLANDS / 1989 / Troops / St. Croix Black unrest after storm.
129. PHILIPPINES / 1989 / Jets / Air cover provided for government against coup.
130. PANAMA / 1989-90 / Troops, bombing / Nationalist government ousted by 27,000 soldiers, leaders arrested, 2000+ killed / Operation “Nimrod Dancer” Mai 1989 bis 20. 12. 1989 / Operation “Just Cause”: Panama, 20. 12. 1989 bis 31. 01. 1990 / Operation “Promote Liberty”: Panama, 31. 01. 1990
131. LIBERIA / 1990 / Troops / Foreigners evacuated during civil war. / Operation “Sharp Edge”: Liberia, Mai 1990 bis 8. 01. 1991 / Operation “Desert Shield”: 2. 08. 1990 bis 17. 01. 1991
132. HAWAII 1990 / Operation “Wipeout”/
133. BOLIVIEN März 1990 bis 1993 / Operation “Ghost Zone”
134. SAUDI ARABIA / 1990-91 / Troops, jets / Iraq countered after invading Kuwait; 540,000 troops also stationed in Oman, Qatar, Bahrain, UAE, Israel.
135. IRAQ / 1990-? / Bombing, troops, naval / Blockade, air strikes; 200,000+ killed in invasion of Iraq; no-fly zone, large-scale destruction of Iraqi military. / Operation “Desert Storm”: Irak, 17. 01. 1991 bis 28. 02. 1991
136. SOMALIA / . 1991 / Operation “Eastern Exit”: Somalia, 2. 01. 1991 bis 11. 01. 1991
137. BANGLADESH / Mai 1991 bis Juni 1991 / Operation “Productiv Effort/Sea Angel”
138. PHILIPPINEN / 1991 / Operation “Fiery Vigil” / 01. 30. 06. 1991 bis 30. 06. 1991
139. KUWAIT / 1991 / Naval, bombing, troops / Kuwait royal family returned to throne.
140. HAITI / 1991 / Operation “Victor Squared” / 01. 30. 09. 1991 bis 30. 09. 1991
141. ZAIRE / 1991 / Operation “Quick Lift” / 24. 09. 1991 bis 7. 10. 1991
142. ZENTRAL- UND SÜDAMERIKA / 1991 / Operation “Coronet Nighthawk” ab 1991
143. SAUDI ARABIEN / 1991 / Operation “Desert Falcon” / ab 31. 03. 1991
144. SÜDWEST-ASIEN / 1991 – 1992 Operation “Desert Calm” / 1. 03. 1991 bis 1. 01. 1992
145. SÜDAMERIKA / 1991-1994 / Operation “Support Justice”: , 1991 bis 1994
146. KURDISTAN / 1991-1994 / Operation “Provide Comfort”:, 5. 04. 1991 bis Dezember 1994
147. KURDISTAN / 1991 – 1996 / Operation “Provide Comfort II” / 24. 07. 1991 bis 31. 12. 1996
148. LOS ANGELES / 1992 / Troops / Army, Marines deployed against antipolice uprising.
149. SOMALIA / 1992-94 / Troops, naval, bombing / U. S. -led United Nations occupation during civil war; raids against one Mogadishu faction.
150. SÜDWEST-ASIEN / 1992 / Operation “Desert Farewell” / 1. 01. 1992 bis 1992
151. SIERRA LEONE / 1992 / Operation “Silver Anvil” / 2. 05. 1992 bis 5. 05. 1992
152. ADRIA / 1992 / Operation “Maritime Monitor” / 16. 07. 1992 bis 22. 11. 1992
153. BOSNIEN-HERZEGOWINA / 1992 / Operation “Sky Monitor” / ab 16. 10. 1992
154. YUGOSLAVIA / 1992-94 / Naval / Nato blockade of Serbia and Montenegro / Operation “Maritime Guard”: Adria, 22. 11. 1992 bis 15. 06. 1993 /
155. BOSNIA / 1993-95 / Jets, bombing / No-fly zone patrolled in civil war; downed jets, bombed Serbs / Operation “Provide Promise”: Bosnien, 3. 07. 1992 bis 31. 03. 1996 / Operation “Sharp Guard”: Adria, 15. 06. 1993 bis Dezember 1995
156. RUANDA / 1994 / Operation “Distant Runner” / 9. 04. 1994 bis 15. 04. 1994 / Operationen “Quiet Resolve”/”Support Hope” 22. 07. 1994 bis 30. 09. 1994
157. KUWAIT / 1994 / Operation “Vigilant Warrior”: Oktober 1994 bis November 1994
158. HAITI / 1994-96 / Troops, naval / Blockade against military government; troops restore President Aristide to office three years after coup.
159. SERBIEN-MAZEDONIEN / 1994 / Operation “Able Sentry” ab 5. 07. 1994
160. HAITI / 1994 – 1995 / Operation “Uphold/Restore Democracy”: 19. 09. 1994 bis 31. 03. 1995
161. SÜDAMERIKA / 1994 – 1995 / Operation “Steady State” 1994 bis April 1996
162. CROATIA / 1995 / Bombing / Krajina Serb airfields attacked before Croatian offensive.
163. SOMALIA / 1995 / Operation “United Shield” 22. 01. 1995 bis 25. 03. 1995
164. KUWAIT / 1995 / Operation “Vigilant Sentine I” ab August 1995
165. ALBANIEN / 1995 / Operation “Nomad Vigil” 1. 07. 1995 bis 5. 11. 1996
166. PERU/ECUADOR / 1995 / Operation “Safe Border”: Peru/Ecuador, ab 1995
167. REPUBLIKA SRPSKA / 1995 / Operation “Deliberate Force” 29. 08. 1995 bis 21. 09. 1995
168. BOSNIEN / 1995 / Operation “Determined Effort” Juli 1995 bis Dezember 1995 / Operation “Joint Edeavor”: Bosnien-Herzegowina, Dezember 1995 bis Dezember 1996
169. KROATIEN / 1995 / Operation “Quick Lift”,Juli 1995
170. ADRIA / 1995 / Operation “Decisive Enhancement” 1. 12. 1995 bis 19. 06. 1996
171. LIBERIA / 1996 / Operation “Assured Response” April 1996 bis August 1996
172. ZENTRALAFRIKANISCHE REPUBLIK / 1996 / Operation “Quick Response” Mai 1996 bis August 1996
173. IRAK – GUAM / 1996 / Operation “Pacific Haven/Quick Transit” 15. 09. 1996 bis 16. 12. 1996
174. SÜDAFRIKA / 1996 / Operation “Laser Strike” ab 1. 04. 1996
175. TASZAR, UNGARN / 1996 / Operation “Nomad Edeavor”: ab März 1996
176. KURDISTAN / 1996 / Operation “Northern Watch” ab 31. 12. 1996
177. SAUDI ARABIEN / 1996 / Operation “Desert Focus” ab Juli 1996
178. IRAK / 1996 / Operation “Desert Strike” Irak, 3. 09. 1996; Cruise Missile-Angriffe:26. 06. 1993, 17. 01. 1993, Bombardements: Irak, 13. 01. 1993
179. BOSNIEN-HERZEGOWINA / 1996 / Operation “Decisive Edeavor/Decisive Edge” Januar 1996 bis Dezember 1996
180. ZAIRE (CONGO) / 1996-97 / Troops / Marines at Rwandan Hutu refuge camps, in area where Congo revolution begin Operation “Guardian Assistance” Zaire/Ruanda/Uganda, 15. 11. 1996 bis 27. 12. 1996
181. LIBERIA / 1997 / Troops / Soldiers under fire during evacuation of foreigners.
182. ALBANIA / 1997 / Troops / Soldiers under fire during evacuation of foreigners.
183. KONGO / 1997 / Operation “Guardian Retrieval” März 1997 bis Juni 1997
184. SIERRA LEONE / 1997 / Operation “Noble Obelisk” Mai 1997 bis Juni 1997
185. KAMBODSCHA / 1997 / Operation “Bevel Edge” Juli 1997
186. IRAK / 1997 / Operation “Phoenix Scorpion I” ab November 1997
187. SUDAN / 1998 / Missiles / Attack on pharmaceutical plant alleged to be 'terrorist' nerve gas plant.
188. AFGHANISTAN / 1998 / Missiles / Attack on former CIA training camps used by Islamic fundamentalist groups alleged to have attacked embassies.
189. KENIA / 1998 / Operation “Noble Response”: Kenia, 21. 01. 1998 bis 25. 03. 1998
190. GUINEA-BISSAU / 1998 / Operation “Shepherd Venture”: , 10. 06. 1998 bis 17. 06. 1998
191. SUDAN/AFGHANISTAN / 1998 / Operation “Infinite Reach”:, 20. bis 30. 08. 1998
192. KOSOVO/ALBANIEN / 1998 / Operation “Determined Falcon” 15. 06. 1998 bis 16. 06. 1998 / Operation “Joint Forge”: ab 20. 06. 1998 / Operation “Eagle Eye”: Kosovo, 16. 10. 1998 bis 24. 03. 1999 / Operation “Determined Force”: Kosovo, 8. 10. 1998 bis 23. 03. 1999
193. BOSNIEN-HERZEGOWINA / 1998 / Operation “Deliberate Forke”: ab 20. 06. 1998 / Operation “Deny Flight”: Bosnien, 12. 04. 1993 bis 20. 12. 1995 / / Operation “Joint Guard”: 20. 06. 1998
194. IRAQ / 1998 / Bombing, Missiles / Four days of intensive air strikes after weapons inspectors allege Iraqi obstructions / Operation “Phoenix Scorpion II”: Irak, ab Februar 1998 / Operation “Phoenix Scorpion III”: Irak, ab November 1998 / Operation “Phoenix Scorpion IV”: Irak, ab Dezember 1998 / Operation “Desert Fox”: Irak, 16. 12. 1998 bis 20. 12. 1998
195. YUGOSLAVIA / 1999 / Bombing, Missiles / NATO air strikes after Serbia declines to withdraw from Kosovo. NATO occupation of Kosovo / Kosovo Operation “Shining Hope” ab 5. 04. 1999 / Operation “Sustain Hope/Allied Harbour”: Kosovo, ab 5. 04. 1999 / Operation “Cobalt Flash”: Kosovo, ab 23. 03. 1999

To be continued….

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