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In Syria and Iran, Diplomacy Trumps Militarism


October 24, 2013
Thomas Erdbrink / The New York Times & Matthew Schofield / McClatchy

An influential Iranian lawmaker says his country has halted the production of enriched uranium up to 20 percent, a level below what is needed to produce a nuclear weapon. Meanwhile, in Syria, the group overseeing the destruction of Syria's chemical arsenal is confident its inspectors will meet their November 1 deadline for rendering inoperable the elements that make immediate warfare possible.

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/10/24/world/middleeast/iran-enrichment.html

Lawmaker Says Iran Has Halted Enrichment
Thomas Erdbrink / The New York Times

TEHRAN (October 23, 2013) -- An influential Iranian lawmaker says his country has halted the production of enriched uranium up to 20 percent, a level that experts say is only a few technical steps from what is needed to produce a nuclear weapon.

The remarks by the lawmaker, Hossein Naqavi Hosseini, who is the deputy head of the national security and foreign policy committee in Parliament, were published on the Parliament's official Web site, Icana, on Tuesday.

No other officials confirmed the news, but Mr. Naqavi Hosseini and his committee have recently visited nuclear sites and on Saturday were briefed by one of Iran's main nuclear negotiators, Deputy Foreign Minister Abbas Araghchi.

Mr. Naqavi Hosseini is the first lawmaker of such stature to make such a statement. If his report is true, then Iran may be edging closer to accepting one of the main demands of world powers, that it suspend the enrichment of uranium, especially up to 20 percent.

Iran says it is forced to enrich up to that level in order to produce fuel for a nuclear test reactor in Tehran, which produces medical isotopes, but the West fears that is a ruse to conceal a nuclear weapons program.

Mr. Naqavi Hosseini said on Tuesday that Iran now had enough enriched uranium to meet the reactor's needs.

"This site has the required fuel at the moment and there is no need for more production," he said, adding, "The issue of suspending or halting enrichment is meaningless because no production is taking place at the moment." He also said Iran was not interested in shipping its stockpile of uranium enriched up to 20 percent abroad as part of a nuclear deal, as has been proposed in the past.

"This would mean we would put it at the disposal of others and have to beg for it later," he said. Instead, he suggested turning the stockpile into fuel plates, under monitoring by the International Atomic Energy Agency.



Syrian Chemical Arsenal Destruction
On Schedule, According to the OPCW

Matthew Schofield / McClatchy Foreign Staff

BERLIN (October 23, 2013) -- The group overseeing the destruction of Syria's chemical arsenal is confident its inspectors will meet their November 1 deadline for rendering inoperable the elements that make immediate warfare possible.

At a Tuesday press conference in The Hague, Organization for the Prohibitions of Chemical Weapons spokesman Michael Luhan said their teams had already made significant progress. He said that this phase of efforts is to destroy production capacity, as well as machines that are used to mix precursors into deadly chemicals and those used to fill those deadly chemicals into rockets. He said already "destruction activities have now been conducted at all but one of the relevant sites in Syria."

"What it means is that it will no longer have the capability to produce any more chemical weapons, and it will no longer have any working equipment to mix and to fill chemical weapons agent into munitions," he said. "That's specifically what will be the case, that's what we expect to be the case as of November 1."

As of Tuesday, the OPCW inspection team had visited 18 of the 23 chemical weapons sites Syrian authorities have disclosed. Luhan noted their teams had started "functional destruction" at almost all of those sites.

He described those activities only in general terms.

"They are using low-tech methods that we had discussed some weeks ago when we were just starting the mission up." he said. "It involves smashing things, cutting things, in some cases using cement and other things; smashing things with heavy vehicles, one or all of those activities. But all low-tech and quick and cheap."

Luhan said the 27 OPCW inspection team members in Syria have had "good access" and that as this phase winds down, the organization next week will temporarily reduce their presence to 15.

The phase after the destruction of machinery involves the far trickier destruction of the chemicals. Syria has more than 1,000 pounds of chemical weapons, including the deadly neurotoxins Sarin and V/X, as well as mustard gas.

The destruction of those chemicals and their precursors is scheduled to be complete by next summer.

The OPCW and the international community got involved this closely in Syria in the wake of an August 21 attack that inspectors said definitely included the use of chemical weapons. The OPCW report on that attack did not assess blame, though others studying their findings believe the types of weapons used, and the clear paths of those rockets during the attacks, indicated the government of Syrian President Bashar Assad.

Perhaps the biggest hurdle facing the inspection teams remains the unstable security situation inside Syria, where a bloody and protracted civil war continues.

On that, Luhan said: "I don't want to elaborate too much, but essentially the security concerns around those sites are that our access needs to be negotiated to be able to conduct verification and other work at those sites."

But, he added, that while there had been reports of attacks near hotel of the inspection team in the first days of their time in Syria, they have not faced further, similar threats.

Posted in accordance with Title 17, Section 107, US Code, for noncommercial, educational purposes.

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