The Associated Press & Reuters – 2015-07-16 00:33:03
Japan Divided over Legislation to Expand Military’s Role
The Associated Press
(July 15, 2015) — A parliamentary committee on Wednesday approved legislation that would expand the role of Japan’s military after Prime Minister Shinzo Abe’s ruling bloc forced the vote in the face of protests from some lawmakers and citizens.
Opposition lawmakers tried to stop the committee vote as hundreds of citizens protested outside.
The unpopular legislation was crafted after Abe’s Cabinet adopted a new security policy last year that reinterpreted a part of Japan’s post-World War II constitution that only permitted the nation’s military to use force for its self-defense. The bills in question would allow Japan to also defend aggression against its allies — a concept called collective self-defense.
Abe has argued that Japan should better prepare for China’s regional threat and do more to contribute to international peacekeeping efforts.
But opponents, including legal experts and academics, counter that the new interpretation is unconstitutional. Polls show that about 80 percent of Japanese find the bills hard to swallow, and the majority of them say they think the legislation is unconstitutional.
That tension was on display Wednesday as opposition lawmakers attempted to thwart the committee’s vote and hundreds chanted anti-war and anti-Abe slogans outside in protest.
Lawmakers rushed over to the podium and began to slap and grab at committee chairman Yasukazu Hamada as he cut off debate and began the voting process. Some held up posters that read “No to a forced vote!” and “No to Abe politics!”
The legislation would “fundamentally change the way Japan has sought pacifism since the end of the war,” Kiyomi Tsujimoto, an opposition Democratic Party of Japan lawmaker, told Abe before the vote.
Abe acknowledged Wednesday that the legislation doesn’t have public support but said he could force the vote because his party has the voters’ mandate — an attitude that has also angered critics and polarized the debate around the military legislation.
Abe has been increasingly criticized for being an autocratic leader and members of his right-wing Liberal Democratic Party came under fire recently after suggesting that two liberal newspapers on Okinawa should be destroyed.
“The existence of our constitution is threatened, the sovereignty-of-the-people principle is threatened, and our democracy is being threatened,” Tsujimoto said.
US, Japan Unveil New Defense Guidelines in Nod to Expanded Role for Tokyo
TOKYO (April 27, 2015) — Japan and the United States unveiled new guidelines for defense cooperation on Monday, reflecting Japan’s apparent willingness to take on a more robust international role at a time of growing Chinese power and concerns about nuclear-armed North Korea.
The first revision to the guidelines since 1997 allows for global cooperation militarily, ranging from defense against ballistic missile, cyber and space attacks and maritime security, following a Japanese Cabinet resolution last year reinterpreting Japan’s pacifist constitution to allow the exercise of the right to “collective self-defense.”
The guidelines would allow for Japan to shoot down missiles heading toward the United States and come to the aid of third countries under attack.
A centerpiece of Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abeâ€™s US visit this week, the guidelines are part of Abe’s wider signal that Japan is ready to take more responsibility for its security as China modernizes its military and flexes its muscles in Asia.
In return, the conservative Japanese leader, who is scheduled to meet US President Barack Obama on Tuesday, has been seeking fresh assurances that America comes to Japan’s aid if necessary in a clash with China.
A joint statement issued after the meeting “reconfirmed the alliance’s commitment to the security of Japan,” as well as Japan’s sovereignty over islets in the East China Sea known as the Senkakus in Japan and the Diaoyus in China, the subject of a bitter territorial dispute.
The surge in China’s military spending since 1997, when the last US-Japan defense cooperation guidelines were issued, and its more assertive stance in maritime and territorial disputes has uneased both Japan and US allies in Southeast Asia.
Announced after a meeting of the US and Japanese foreign and defense ministers in New York, the guidelines eliminate geographic restrictions that had largely limited joint work to the defense of Japan and the surrounding area, a senior US official said.
“We will be able to do globally what weâ€™ve been able to do in the defense of Japan and regionally,” the official said, saying the new guidelines also meant Japan “can respond to attacks on third countries; not just the United States.”
The changes would allow greater coordination and information sharing, for example, in missile defense, and allow Japan to shoot down any missiles heading for US territory or to defend US ships engaged in missile-defense in the vicinity of Japan, he said. They would also allow increased cooperation in cybersecurity and defense of assets in space, the US official said.
Asked if the updated guidelines were a response to Chinaâ€™s growing power and assertiveness, the official said they would strengthen the US alliance system at an important time and reflected Asiaâ€™s growing importance, but repeated the US mantra that such moves were “not aimed at any single country.”
Despite US assurances of its military commitment, worries persist in Tokyo that one day Washington, which is reining in its defense spending and is deeply intertwined economically with China, may not come to Japan’s defense, for example in a clash with Beijing over the disputed East China Sea territory.
Patrol ships and military aircraft from both countries have routinely shadowed each other near the tiny islands since then, raising fears that an unintended collision or other incident could develop into a larger clash.
Obama has said the Japanese-controlled isles are covered by a bilateral security treaty obliging the United States to defend Japan, but Washington has also made clear it does not want to get dragged into a Sino-Japanese conflict.
The revisions to the guidelines reflect what is seen as a profound evolution in Japanese security policy. In the most dramatic shift since Japan’s military was rebuilt after World War II, Abe’s Cabinet in July reinterpreted the constitution’s pacifist Article 9 to allow Japan’s armed forces to provide military aid to the United States and other friendly countries under attack.
The shift, to be enabled by legislation later this year, will allow Japan’s military to take actions such as mine-sweeping during hostilities in the Hormuz Strait in the Gulf. It will also allow logistical support for US forces in conflicts beyond Japan’s immediate neighborhood without a specific law for each operation, Japanese lawmakers and government sources said.
A key Liberal Democratic Party lawmaker said Abe’s ruling LDP party wants to revise Japan’s constitution by late 2018 to remove constraints on his defense strategy and avoid time-consuming legal gymnastics over the interpretation of the current charter.
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