The Cuban Missile Crisis @ 60: Briefing NATO Allies

October 22nd, 2022 - by The National Security Archives

The Cuban Missile Crisis @ 60:
Briefing NATO Allies

The National Security Archives

•  British Ambassador First Outsider to Learn of Kennedy Decision for Blockade 

•  British Told of US Preemptive Nuclear Strike Plan if Soviets Moved Against West Berlin 

•  Belgian Foreign Minister “Preferred US to Inform NATO Allies 24 Hours in Advance” 

WASHINGTON, D.C. (October 21, 2022) – President John F. Kennedy made unilateral decisions to impose a naval blockade and approve other military moves, but winning the support of European allies remained central to US policy during the Cuban Missile Crisis, according to declassified records of briefings delivered to NATO leaders shortly before Kennedy announced the discovery of Soviet missiles in Cuba.

While British Ambassador David Ormsby-Gore, an old friend of Kennedy’s, was the first foreign diplomat to receive official word of the crisis, top leaders of other NATO states also received special briefings on the situation from US ambassadors, special emissaries, and CIA officials before President Kennedy appeared on US television to address the nation on October 22, 1962.

The previous day, at a private lunch at the White House, Kennedy told Ormsby-Gore about the missile deployments, plans for a blockade, and his overall strategy, saying that he hoped to resolve the crisis through “negotiation and discussion” and that he did not expect or hope for an invasion of Cuba.

Other declassified documents from US and British archives provide detailed accounts of the crisis briefings given to other NATO allies on October 22. Diplomats and heads of state in NATO Europe and Canada supported US actions, although discontent that they had received such short notice lay just beneath the surface.

British Prime Minister Harold Macmillan was “hurt” that he had not received earlier word, while Belgian Foreign Minister Paul Henri-Spaak believed that NATO should have had “24 hours’ notice.”

Today’s posting also includes the accounts of officials who watched the crisis unfold in Washington. A British intelligence officer reported hearing of US plans for a worst-case scenario under which Khrushchev took West Berlin and the US responded with a preemptive nuclear strike on Soviet ICBMs.

Read the Documents Here

The National Security Archive is an independent non-governmental research institute and library located at The George Washington University in Washington, D.C. The Archive collects and publishes declassified documents acquired through the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA). A tax-exempt public charity, the Archive receives no US government funding; its budget is supported by publication royalties and donations from foundations and individuals.

PRIVACY NOTICE: The National Security Archive does not and will never share the names or e-mail addresses of its subscribers with any other organization. Once a year, we will write you and ask for your financial support. We may also ask you for your ideas for Freedom of Information requests, documentation projects, or other issues that the Archive should take on. We would welcome your input, and any information you care to share with us about your special interests. But we do not sell or rent any information about subscribers.